KALA ~TIME

कालो हि नाम (भगवान्)  स्वयम्भुरनादिमध्यनिधनः |
अत्र रसव्यापत्सम्पत्ती जीवितमरणे च मनुष्याणामायत्ते |
स सूक्ष्मामपि कलां न लीयत इति कालः, सङ्कलयति कालयति वा भूतानीति कालः ||(Su.Su.6/3)

Kala is the name of the divinity, which is self-born has no beginning middle, end. Abnormalities and excellences of tastes and life and death of human being are dependent on it. It is called “Kala” since it does not spare even minute things since it makes all things into one group and since it brings about death of all living being.

Kala bibhaga

तस्य संवत्सरात्मनो  भगवानादित्यो गतिविशेषेणाक्षिनिमेषकाष्ठाकलामुहूर्ताहोरात्रपक्षमासर्त्वयनसंवत्सरयुगप्रविभागं करोति ||४||(Su.Su.6/4)

The god Aditya by his special movement, brings about divisions in the ever moving time commencing from akshinimesha, these are kastha, kala, muhurta, ahoratra, paksha,masa, samvatsara.

तत्र लघ्वक्षरोच्चारणमात्रोऽक्षिनिमेषः, पञ्चदशाऽक्षिनिमेषाः काष्ठा, त्रिंशत्काष्ठाः कला, विंशतिकलो मुहूर्तः कलादशभागश्च, त्रिंशन्मुहूर्तमहोरात्रं, पञ्चदशाहोरात्राणि पक्षः, स च द्विविधः- शुक्लः कृष्णश्च, तौ मासः ||५||(Su.su.6/5)

NATURE OF THE AYANAS

विसर्गे पुनर्वायवो नातिरूक्षाः प्रवान्ति, इतरे पुनरादाने; सोमश्चाव्याहतबलःशिराभिर्भाभिरापूरयञ्जगदाप्याययति शश्वत्, अतो विसर्गः सौम्यः|आदानं पुनराग्नेयं; तावेतावर्कवायू सोमश्च कालस्वभावमार्गपरिगृहीताः कालर्तुरसदोषदेहबलनिर्वृत्तिप्रत्ययभूताः समुपदिश्यन्ते|(Ch. Su. 6/5)

During the period of liberation, the prevailing winds are not marked by excessive dryness; it is otherwise with the period of absorption. During the former the moon with unabated vigour aggrandizes the earth by surcharging it with her cool radiations and nourishes it constantly; therefore the period of liberation is characterized by the predominance of the water element. On the other hand, the period of absorption is characterized by the predominance of the fire element.

In this manner, the sun, the wind and the moon, governed by time as well as their own special natures and orbits, are spoken of as the causative factors of the manifestations of the periods, seasons, tastes, humors and bodily strength

SANVATSARA VIBHAGA

इह खलु संवत्सरं षडङ्गमृतुविभागेन विद्यात्|
तत्रादित्यस्योदगयनमादानं च त्रीनृतूञ्छिशिरादीन् ग्रीष्मान्तान् व्यवस्येत्, वर्षादीन् पुनर्हेमन्तान्तान् दक्षिणायनं विसर्गं च||४|(Ch.Su.6/4)

Now the year, it should be known, consists of six parts when divided according to the seasons, from among these, the three seasons from the dewy season to the summer represent the sun’s northern course and his period of absorption; while the three seasons from the rains to the winter represent the sun’s southern course and his period of liberation

त एते शीतोष्णवर्षलक्षणाश्चन्द्रादित्ययोः [] कालविभागकरत्वादयने द्वे भवतो दक्षिणमुत्तरं च |
तयोर्दक्षिणं वर्षाशरद्धेमन्ताः; तेषु भगवानाप्यायते सोमः, अम्ललवणमधुराश्च रसा बलवन्तो भवन्ति, उत्तरोत्तरं च सर्वप्राणिनां बलमभिवर्धते |
उत्तरं च शिशिरवसन्तग्रीष्माः, तेषु भगवानाप्यायतेऽर्कः, तिक्तकषायकटुकाश्च रसा बलवन्तो भवन्ति, उत्तरोत्तरं च सर्वप्राणिनां बलमुपहीयते ||७||(Su.Su.6/7)

kala vibhajana

As per Sarangadhar samhita, Ritus are

Seasons and Lunar months (Hindu calendar):

तत्र माघादयो द्वादश मासाः, द्विमासिकमृतुं कृत्वा षडृतवो भवन्ति; ते शिशिरवसन्तग्रीष्मवर्षाशरद्धेमन्ताः |
तेषां तपस्तपस्यौ शिशिरः, मधुमाधवौ वसन्तः, शुचिशुक्रौ ग्रीष्मः, नभोनभस्यौ वर्षाः, इषोर्जौ शरत्, सहःसहस्यौ हेमन्त इति ||६||(Su.Su.6/6)

  • Magha, Falguna-Vasanta
  • Chaitra, Vaishakha-Grishma
  • Jyaishtha, Aashadha-Varsha
  • Shravana, Bhadrava-Sharada
  • Ashwina, Kartika-Hemanta
  • Margashirsha, Pausha – Shishira

These seasons can be co – related to the Roman calendar as follows:-ShishiraJan. Feb. – Feb. MarVasantaMar. Apr. – Apr. MayGrishmaMay Jun. – Jun. JulyVarshaJuly Aug. – Aug. SeptSharadaSept. Oct. – Oct. NovHemantaNov. Dec. – Dec. Jan  

State of dosha as per different seasons

  AADAN KALA/UTTARAYANA KALA

The movement of sun in uttardisha in uttarayana. The ayana reduces the saumya or mild qualities from earth and takes away the strength of human beings.

Cause of Decrease the strength during Adana kala

तत्र रविर्भाभिराददानो जगतः स्नेहं वायवस्तीव्ररूक्षाश्चोपशोषयन्तः शिशिरवसन्तग्रीष्मेषु यथाक्रमं रौक्ष्यमुत्पादयन्तो रूक्षान् रसांस्तिक्तकषायकटुकांश्चाभिवर्धयन्तो नृणां दौर्बल्यमावहन्ति||६||(Ch. Su. 6/6)

During the first period, the sun with his hot rays absorbs the moisture from the earth, and the piercing dry winds giving rise to progressive dryness and promoting the formation of the three tastes – bitter, astringent and pungent respectively – lead to gradual waning of strength in men.

 VISARGA KALA

वर्षाशरद्धेमन्तेषु तु दक्षिणाभिमुखेऽर्के कालमार्गमेघवातवर्षाभिहतप्रतापे, शशिनि चाव्याहतबले, माहेन्द्रसलिलप्रशान्तसन्तापे जगति, अरूक्षा रसाः प्रवर्धन्तेऽम्ललवणमधुरा यथाक्रमं तत्र बलमुपचीयते नृणामिति||७|(Ch. Su. 6/7)

From the season of the rains to the autumn and the winter, however, the sun who has his face to the south, being shorn of his glory by the cumulative influence of period, orbit, clouds, winds and rains, the moon, remaining undiminished in power, and the summer heat having been quenched by the rains, it is the non – dry group of tastes – sour, salt and sweet- that increases in the given order. During this period to the strength of the men waxes.

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