According to Ayurvedic Science, the power of body which decreases and stop the genesis of disease is known as Vyadhikshamatva. Today, the mankind is facing an increase in the emergence of new disease every now and then along with the challenge to cop up with the pollution and stress to complete for survival every moment. Lives embrace the states of health and disease. Ayurveda, the unbeaten science deals with these states of life. Ayurveda incorporates both the preventive and curative aspects of human ailments, promising it as a holistic science. This holistic approach of Ayurveda resembles to the entire function of Vyadhikshamatva. This can steer away from the origin and or progression of various diseases. Vyadhikshamatva is a broad concept comprising the whole modern understanding of immunology and other gross and subtle factors paying attention to the prevention and progression of diseases in human body. Vyadhikshamatva helps in to achieve the aim of Ayurveda i.e.
स्वास्थस्य स्वास्थ्य रक्षणम्। आतुरस्य विकार प्रशमनम् च।।(च.सू. 30/26)
There is continuous exposure to many infecting agents . The external environment also checks the adaptive power of humans. Diseases are caused by the asatmya indriyartha samyog, prajnaparadh and parinama. The nature has given the power to adopt us in these variations which is known as Vyadhikshamitva.
- It is made of two words i.e. vyadhi and kshamatva .
- व्याधि – व्याध् तदने। i.e. it means the condition which gives pida to adhisthan or body.
- क्षमत्व – क्षमुस् सहने। It means Shakti or samarthya.
व्याधिक्षमत्वं व्याधिबलविरोधित्वं व्याध्युत्पाद प्रतिबन्धकत्वमिति यावत्। – (Ch. Su. 28/7, Ay. Dip.)
Vyadhikshamatwa is illustrated as the power of resistance capable enough to check the progress occurrence or recurrence of disease.
Thereare not direct synonyms are mentioned but following may be taken as synonyms :-
- Swastha: – Susruta defines Swastha as a person whose Vatadi Dosa, Rasadi Dhatu, Mootradi mala and agni are in Sama pramana and work properly and who possess Prasannatmendriyamanah.
समदोषः समाग्निश्च समधातुमलक्रियः। प्रसन्नात्मेन्द्रियमनाः स्वस्थ इत्यभिधीयते।। (सु. सू. -15/47 )
These resemble with the symptoms of Vyadhisaha Shareera. Only a healthy person has the capability of fighting the diseases which is termed as Vyadhikshamatva.
- Bala: Bala defies Rogaroopi Dosa and Vyadhikshamatva is defying diseases. Hence, Bala is the synonym of VyadhikshamatvaSusruta also directed to always preserve Bala as it destroys Vyadhibala. In other words, preserving bala increases Vyadhikshamatva.
- Ojas: It is the capital essence of all seven dhatu. Ojas & Bala have Adhar- Adheya & Karana- Karya sambandha. But Ojas & Bala are used synonymously as Ojas is Sarvotkrishta karana of Bala.
VARIABILITY OF VYADHIKSHAMATVA :-
It is observed that many people with appropriate daily and seasonal habits also develop disease and some, though indulged in improper things develop hardly any disease. Hita- ahita and Sukha dukha are different for different individuals. All these things depend on desha, kala and vyadhikshamitva of the person
Persons are categorised in to two group on the basis of their capabilities to resist the disease.
1. Avyadhisaha :- These are the persons incapable of resisting diseases. eg- Ashtaninditiya Purush.
अतिदीर्घश्च अतिह्रस्वश्च अतिलोमाच अलोम च, अतिकृष्ण्श्च , अतिगौरवश्च , अतिस्थूलश्च , अतिकृशश्चेति। (च.सू.- 21/3)
(a) Atisthoola – Excessively obese persons
(b) Atikrisha – Excessively emaciated persons
(c) Anivishta mansa – Persons having improper
(d) Anivishta rakta – Persons having defective Rakta
(e) Anivishta asthi – Persons having defective Asthi
dhatu (bone tissues)
(f) Durbala – Very weak persons
(g) Asatmyaharopchit – Persons nourished with
(h) Alpahari – Persons taking diet in small quantity.
(i) Alpasatvayukta – Persons with feeble mind
These are the persons capable of resisting diseases.eg- prashasta purush.
सममांस प्रमाणस्तु सम संहननो नरः। दृढेन्द्रिय विकाराणां न बलेनाभिभूयते।। (च.सू.-21/8)
They are just opposite to above. Proportionate musculature, compactness of the body and healthy indriyas prevent the onset of disease; help to withstand hunger, thirst and heat of the sun, cold weather and physical exertion; assist in digesting & assimilating the food properly.
According to Chakrapani Vyadhikshamatwa can be divided in to two category :-
- Vyadhi Bala Virodhi Kshamatva – Destroys the disease which has occurred.
- Vyadhyutpad pratibandhaka Kshamtva – Does’t let the Vyadhi to evolve. May be correlated with Sahaja bala or Innate immunity.
Vyadhikshamatva Bala :-
Acharya Sushruta described bala as
तत्र बलेन स्थिरोपचितमांसता सर्वचेष्टास्वप्रतिघातः
सर्ववर्णप्रसादो बाह्यानाम् अभ्यन्तरानाम् च करनं
आत्मकम् कार्य प्रतिपति भवन्ति। (सु. सू-15/25)
means Bala imparts firm integrity to the muscles, improves the voice and complexion, and helps the person to perform his natural functions (including the external and inner function) normally.
Three types of bala (Vyadhiksamatva or immunity) are described .
त्रिविधं बलमिति (च.सू.-11/36)
- Sahaja bala :-
सहजं वत् शरीरसत्वयोः।(च.सू.-11/36)
The constitutional strength present since birth (Charaka Samhita Sutrasthana 11/36, p.228). It depends on the healthiness of shukra (sperms) and artava (ovum). According to Ayurvedic concept of Genetics, if two parents‟ genetic makeup is healthy, similar health status is acquired by the children. On the other hand if the genetic makeup of parents is susceptible to certain diseases, those diseases may be carried over into the next generation (Ch. Sha. 3/17). This concept indicates congenital abnormalities which occur due to abnormal changes at genes or chromosomal levels.
- Kalaja bala (according to time, season, and age):-
कालकृतं ऋतुविभागजं वयकृतं च।(च.सू.-11/36)
Encompassing the time of day, season, age etc. (according to ritu and age) factors for enhancing immunity. Strength is assumed to be greater in the early morning, spring, and yuvaawastha (young age) than in evening, summers and old age (Ch. Su. 6/8)
- Yuktikrita bala (acquired):-
युक्तिकृतं पुनस्तद्याहारचेष्टा योगजं।(च.सू.-11/36)
Ayurveda focuses on following plans for acquiring bala or enhancing immunity: · Proper and suitable ahara (nutritious diet), · Performing exercise (chesta) with proper method & · Using different beneficial yoga (e.g. rasayana chikitsa) (Ch. Su. 11/36).
REASONS FOR VYADHIKSHAMITWA :-
Disease is the only factor responsible for disturbing the normal physiological state of the body. Disease originates from Paraspar anubandha of Nidan, Dosa, Dusya and absence of Vikarvighatkar bhava.
इह खलु निदान दोष दूष्य विशेषेभ्यो
विकारविघातभावाभावप्रतिविशेषा भवन्ति। (च. नि.- 4/4)
Vyadhikshamatva is a process which acts as a result of presence of Vikarvighatkar bhava even after Paraspar anubandha of Nidan, Dosa, Dusya.
- विकार विघातकर भाव – Factors that prevent disease.
- विकार विघात अभाव – Factors favourable for disease.
Hence,Vikarvighatkar bhava are the main reason for vyadhikshamatva.
FACTORS AFFECTING VYADHIKSHAMATVA :-
……….तदेव हि अपथ्यं देश काल संयोग वीर्य प्रमाण ……। (च. सू.- 28/07)
Following are the main factors affecting vyadhikshamtva as described by Acharya Charak :-
- Desha :- Vrihi is pittakarak and guru. Vrihi is more wholesome in anupadesha but no as much wholesome in jangaladesh.
- Kala :- If we use vrihidhanya in sharad, it is pittakarak but less harmful in hemanta ritu.
- Samyoga :- Vrihidhanya with dadhi and phanita is more harmful but with madhu it is less harmful.
- Virya :- Vrihidhanya with ushna virya is more harmful but with madhu is less harmful.
- Pramana :-
Food in more quantity is harmful but in appropriate quatity it is wholesome.
Some other factors :-
- Ojas: Ojas which is the supreme essence of all dhatu is the vital power of the body rendering the capability of being unaffected in case of severe infections.
- Bala: Bala is responsible for all the physical & psychological actions. Proper psychosomatic state ensures sufficient agnibala, dehabala which presents itself as healthy immune system.
- Jatakarma : A sanskara conducted just after birth by giving madhu & ghrita in unequal quantity or gold to the baby for licking.
- Lehana karma : Similar to the vaccination to prevent bacterial & viral diseases in the present day world, Kashyapa indicated lehana karma in children for homeostasis of dosas and to improve the immunity of the child. Some of the lehas are : (a) Brahmi, Mandukaparni, Triphala, Chitraka, Vacha, Saunf, Satavari, Danti, Nagabala, Nisotha, use single above drugs with madhu & ghrita. (b) Manjishtha, Triphala, Brahmi, Bala, Chitraka equal parts with honey & ghrita etc.
- Suvarna karma : Done by rubbing the gold on a clean stone & then mixing it with honey & ghrita (in asymmetrical quantity) and make the child lick it.
- Dhoopana karma: To destroy various toxins present in the atmosphere Ayurveda directs for Dhoopana karma. For example Guggulu (Commiphora mukul), Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi), Dhoopana is for destroying micro-organisms and thus protecting the health.
- Niyamita vyayama : Niyamita vyayama improves body immunity as well as body strength.
Every ahita aahar is not equally harmful, all dosas are not equally
powerful and all persons are not capable of resisting disease. Factors which
contribute for resistance to diseases are equilibrium of dosha ,dhatu and agni etc. Vyadhikshamatva which is
synonyms to swastha, bala and ojas is matter ans substance in present world
where every day new short of diseases are evolving. Different persons have
different vyadhikshamatva which depends upon oja, bala, season, diet and
regimen, anupana, rasa, jaatkarma etc. One should wisely adopt these into his
lifestyle so as to make his body and mind strong enough to dal with all the
physical and mental stresses of modern era.
- CARAKA SAMHITA of Agnivesha (vol-1) elaborated by Caraka and Dridhbala edited with ‘CARAKA CHANDRIKA’ Hindi commentary by Dr. Brahmanand Tripathi. Published by Chaukhambha Subharti Prakashan, Varanasi;
- Susruta samhita, with Nibandhasangraha commentary of Dalhana, Ed. Yadavji Trikamji Acharya, Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi, Reprint, Sutrasthan, 2014;
- A Text Book For Roga Nidana And Vikruthi Vijnana by Dr. Nisha Kumari (vol-II) ; Published by Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi;