- According to Ayurvedic science dosha, dhatu and malas are the root or basic elements of human body. If these elements are in equilibrium state body will be in healthy state and disease occurs in body either due to increase or decrease of these constituents.
- The object of Ayurveda has been said to be of maintaining the homeostasis to the level of physiological equilibrium and normalcy of tissues.
धातुसाम्य क्रिया चोक्ता तन्त्रस्यास्य प्रयोजनम्। (च० सू ० – 1/53 )
- Dhatu vaishamya can be either due to vriddhi (increased) or kshina (decreased) dosha, dhatu or mala. The normalcy of dhatu i.e. physiological homeostasis can be achieved through application of Samanya-Vishesha siddhanta.
- Samanya and Vishesha both are bhav padartha. Among Shat Padarthas, Samanya is placed 4th and Vishesha is placed 5th as per Vaisesika. Samanya is placed 1st and Vishesha is placed 2nd according to Acharya Charaka (Ayurveda).
सामाण्यमेकत्वकरं , विशेषस्तु पृथक्तवकृत।
तुल्यार्थता हि सामान्यं, विशेषस्तु विपर्ययः।।(च० सू ० – 1/45 )
- The term Samanya means similarity or oneness or uniformity or the one which causes increase in substance. While the term Vishesha means dissimilarity or separateness or non- uniformity or the one which causes decrease in substance.
सर्वदा सर्वभावानाम् सामान्यं वृद्धिकारणम्।
ह्रासहेतुर्विशेषश्च, प्रवृत्तिरुभयस्य तु।। (च० सू ० – 1/44)
- प्रवृत्तिरुभयस्य तु concern to utility of samanya and vishesha. Literally pravritti refers to activity or relationship. Both samanya and vishesha needs establishment of relationship with body for their function.
- Here, सर्वदा refers to both eternal and periodical time and भाव means that which is in existence in the form of dravya, guna and karma but not the which are to be created afresh. Hence,both samanya and vishesha can be categorised in to :-
- Dravya Samanya/Vishesha
- Guna Samanya/Vishesha
- Karma Samanya/Vishesha.
- Samanya theory is used in nourishment and health maintenance.
- Theory of samanya is clinically applied, as samanya is cause of vriddhi or increase, and thus its principle is used in kshaya of dosha, dhatus and mala.
|Dravya – Samanya||Guna- Samanya||Karma – Samanya|
|Ø सर्वदा सर्वभावानाम्.. indicates guna samanya.
Ø The similarity visualized in substances represent this type of samanya.
Ø Acharya Charak has described dravya samanya by the statement– मांसमप्यायते मांसेन। i.e mamsa (meat) being similar to mamsa dhatu causes its increase when consumed by person.
Ø In the same way kshaya of
Shukra by Kshira , ghrita Mutra by Ikshu & varuni and Purishakshaya can be corrected by masha (Phaseolus radiatus), yava (barley), shaka dhanyaamla (sour fermented liquor from rice gruel) etc.
|Ø सामाण्यमेकत्वकरं………indicates guna samanya.
Ø This type of samanya produces oneness.
Ø Guna samanya is described by – समानगुणानामाहार विकाराणामुपंयोगः ।
Ø When similar dravya prayoga is not possible the same qualitative dravya are given in the form of ahara or ausadha to compensate the kshaya.
Ø For example milk and semen are from two different groups but both consist of madhur rasa hence useful in shukra-kshaya.
|Ø तुल्यार्थतेत्यादिना…….. indicates karma samanya.
Ø The common result of the actions belongs to this type of samanya.
Ø Karma samanya is described by – कर्मापि च यद्यस्य धातोवृद्धिक्रम ततदासेव्यम् ।
Ø Hence, by karma (activities), we can increase the depleted body components(dhatu).
Ø Vata- kshaya can be corrected by vyayama and kapha kshaya is corrected by bedrest and with help of Abhyanga heaviness, stickiness and reduced temperature of skin can be treated.
THERAPEUTIC BASIS OF SAMANYA FOR KSHAYA USING DRAVYAS :-
|S.N.||Kshaya||Dravya leading to vriddhi|
|1.||Shukra||Kshira (milk), ghrita (ghee), madhur, shita (cold), snigdha(unctuous) guna possessing dravya|
|2.||Mutra||Ikshu (sugar cane), varuni (type of wine), manda (thin gruel), madhura(sweet), amla(sour) , lavana(saline)|
|3.||Purisha||Kulmasha, masha (Phaseolus radiatus), yava (barley), shaka (leafy vegetables), dhanyaamla (sour fermented liquor from rice gruel) , kushukunda (mushroom)|
|4.||Vata||Katu (pungent), tikta(bitter), kasaya(astringent), ruksha(dry), laghu(light), shita (cool)|
|5.||Pitta||Amla(sour), lavana(saline), katu(pungent), kshara(alkaline), ushna(hot), tikshna(sharp).|
|6.||Shleshma||Shleshma Snigdha(unctuous) , guru(heavy), madhur(sweet), Sandra(dense), pichhila(slimy).|
- To manage the dosa primarily the vishesha theory is applied.
- sadavidhupakrama (langhana, brimhana, rukshana, snehana, swedana, stambhana) are based on guna is based on vishesha.
- The samshodhan and samshamana is also based on vishesha theory.
|Dravya – Vishesha||Guna – Vishesha||Karma – Vishesha|
|Ø Reduction of Dravyatmaka dosha from the body by utilizing viruddha rasa is known as dravya vishesha.
|Ø Reduction of dosha from the body by utilizing viprit guna dravya is known as guna vishesha.||Ø Reduction of dosha by doing opposite karma is known as karma vishesha.|
|Aggravated Doshas||Dravya – Vishesha||Guna – Vishesha||Karma – Vishesha|
|Vata||Sneha (oil)||Snigdha, ushna, guru, sthir, manda||Vasti, Rest|
|Pitta||Ghrita (ghee)||Shita, manda||Virechana, Sangita shravan|
|Kapha||Madhu (honey)||Ruksha, Ushna, laghu, khara, sara||Vaman , vyayama|
In Ayurveda it seems impossible to treat various diseases without the application of Samanya- Vishesha Principle. By the rule of Samanya – Vishesha a medicine used properly should strengthen dosha and dhatus that have become weak (by its similarities) and at the same time it should reduce the dosha and dhatus that are increased out of proportion to cause the imbalance (by its opposite nature). Hence the Samanya- Vishesha Principle is a key component in choosing the most effective plan of treatment that involves food activities, medicines and other modes.