- Human body is an epitome of universe.
- According to this siddhanta there is great similarity between outside world and individual.The individual (purusha) is a tiny replica of the vast universe (lok). All the things of the universe are present in human body in one form or the others. In other word men is microcosm.
- This siddhanta is enunciated by Vedanta Darshana. Purusha means human body or individual and loka means nature or universe.
PINDA-BRAHAMANDA NYAY :-
- According to Yajurveda :-
“यत् पिण्डे तत् ब्रह्माण्डे “
i.e. all that exist in brahamanda (universe) also exist in pinda (individual). Hence also known as “Pinda Brahmanda Nyay”.
- Brahmanda:- The word Brahmanda is formed by the combination of two words, Brahma and Anda.
Word Brahma is originated from root word “Briha” Dhatu that means to expand.
ब्रह्मांड = ब्रह्म + अंड or बृह + अंड
Hence, Brahmanda means expanding egg.
ACHARYA CHARAKA’s VIEW ON LOK-PURUSH SAMYA :-
- Acharya Charaka has mentioned in Sharir Sthana :-
यावन्तः हि लोके भावविशेषाः तावन्तः पुरुषे।
यावन्तः पुरुषे तावन्तः लोके। (च० शा० – 5/3)
i.e. Human body is equal to universe, what so ever formed entities are in universe, the same are in human body, the same are in human being and what so ever entities are in human being those are in universe.
The similarity between body and universe can be understood in to 2 ways :-
1. Anatomical or Structural similarity :-
- Utpatti :-
According to shristi utpatti everything (either Chetan or achetan) are originated from avyaktaawstha i.e. 1st stage of shristi utpatti.
- Panchbhautik :-
सर्वं द्रव्यं पञ्चभौतिकतम् अस्मिन् अर्थे। (च० सू०-26/10)
The composition of human body is just like the composition of nature or universe. Ayurveda states that each and every element on this earth is formed from panchmahabhuta( prithvi,ap, teja,vayu and akasa).
- Agnishomiya :-
Loka is agnishomiya in nature. Shukra is saumya and artava is agneya in nature. Thus purush which is made up of shukra and artava is also Agnishomiya.
- Shaddhatwatmak :-
According to Acharya Charaka, Lok and Purush both are shaddhatwatmak and composed of panchmahabhuta and avyakta bramha.
- The similarities between lokgata bhavas and purushgata bhava i.e. similarities of entities of human and universe are explained by Acharya Charaka in the chapter Purushvichariya Sharir :-
|Sr. No.||Lokgata (Entities of universe)||Purushgata (Comparable entities of purusa)|
|7.||Brahma- Vibhuti||Antaratma- vibhuti|
|22.||Dwapara yuga||Vriddha awastha|
2. Functional similarity :-
Activities in human body are also similar to that occurring in universe.
All the activities of universe and individual are mainly of three types – 1)Visarga – to give strength or union. 2) Adana – transformation or change or digestion. 3) Vikshepa- movement.
विसर्गादानविक्षेपैः सोमसूर्यानिला यथा।
धारयन्ति जगद्देहं कफपित्तानिलास्तथा।। ( सु० सू०- 21/8)
Following functions keep the balance in nature-
- Moon have principle of cohesion or union which is responsible for the keeping the molecule intact and helping the new growth.
- The sun is representative of principle of thermogenesis or transformation.
- Principle of movement represented by wind or wind is responsible for all types of movement.
In the same way, Tridosha i.e. kapha, pitta and vata maintain the balance of all body function.
- Any changes occuring in the universe causes structural and functional changes in the body. hence, changes in normal structure and function of universe play important role in cause and development of disease or abnormal condition (etiopathogenesis) .
- Man is part of nature hence environmental changes affect human body favourably or adversely.
- According to Acharya P. V. Sharma-
यत्राकृति तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति।
i.e. the plant parts or substance which is morphologically similar to body parts are beneficial to that body part.
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- For e.g. bark of tree is similar to skin hence it is beneficial for the skin.
- Similarly, The shape of grapes is like that of lungs; therefore, grapes are effective in lungs disorders.
- Atibala is kidney shaped and has diuretic property.
- Chestnut is brain shaped and is a potent brain tonic.
- The seed of jack fruit is testes shaped and has been shown beneficial for testes.
- Thus, nature has indicated that what is to be used for the management of which type of disorders on the basis of lok purush samya siddhant.